MEITNER, LISE

MEITNER, LISE (1878–1968), physicist and one of the small group responsible for the discovery of atomic fission. Born in Vienna, she moved to Berlin in 1917 and there joined the distinguished chemist Otto Hahn, with whom she worked in collaboration, researching into radioactive substances. Lise Meitner was one of the first women to become a professor at the University of Berlin (1926). From 1917 she was for over 20 years head of the physics department in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for chemistry in Berlin. After the Anschluss in 1938, she left Germany and settled in Stockholm, working on the staff of the Nobel Institute. There she received a letter from Hahn describing his discovery with Fritz Strassmann that, when a uranium atom was disintegrated by a neutron, an atom of barium was thereby produced. While holidaying near Gothenburg in December 1938, she discussed this with her nephew, otto frisch , who was working in Denmark with niels bohr . The two physicists immediately realized the significance of Hahn's work, which meant that the uranium atom was split into roughly equal parts, accompanied by a tremendous release of energy. Frisch called this "fission," a term borrowed from biology. Lise Meitner visited the United States after 1945, but returned to Sweden and became a citizen in 1949. Both before and after World War II she received many honors. She eventually retired to Cambridge, England, where she died. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: New York Times (Oct. 28, 1968); E. Yost, in: Science Digest (May 1962), 83–88. (Maurice Goldsmith)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Meitner, Lise — (1878 1968)    physicist; Albert Einstein* dubbed her the German Madame Curie. Born to a Jewish lawyer in Vienna, she was drawn to science as a child. Ignoring her father s counsel against following physics, she began studies in 1901 at Vienna s… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Meitner , Lise — (1878–1968) Austrian–Swedish physicist Meitner, the daughter of a lawyer, was born in Vienna and entered the university there in 1901. She studied science under Ludwig Boltzmann and obtained her doctorate in 1906. From Vienna she went to Berlin… …   Scientists

  • Meitner, Lise — born Nov. 7, 1878, Vienna, Austria died Oct. 27, 1968, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Eng. German physicist. She worked at Berlin s Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (1912–38), also teaching at the University of Berlin (1926–38). At a laboratory that she set… …   Universalium

  • Meitner,Lise — Meit·ner (mītʹnər), Lise. 1878 1968. Austrian born Swedish physicist and pioneer in the study of nuclear fission. * * * …   Universalium

  • Meitner, Lise — (1878 1968)    Austrian scientist. She studied at the University of Vienna and later worked in Berlin. In 1918 she discovered protactinium. During World War I she served as an X ray nurse for the Austrian army. Later she returned to Germany. In… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Meitner, Lise — ► (1878 1968) Física austríaca. Descubrió, con Hahn y Strassmann, la fisión del núcleo de uranio. * * * (7 nov. 1878, Viena, Austria–27 oct. 1968, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, Inglaterra). Física alemana. Trabajó en el Instituto Kaiser Wilhelm de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Meitner — Lise …   Scientists

  • Meitner — Meitner, Lise …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Lise Meitner — Lise Meitner, vers 1900. Naissance 7 ou 17 novembre 1878 Vienne (Autriche) Décès 27 octobre 1968 Cambridge ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lise-Meitner-Schule — (Lise Meitner Gymnasium, Realschule, Gesamtschule usw.) heißen mehrere nach der österreichisch schwedischen Kernphysikerin Lise Meitner (1878 1968) benannte Schulen. Deutschland Name Ort Bundesland Schulart Details zur Namensgebung Lise Meitner… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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